Jpeg vs Raw which is better and why?
Jpeg vs Raw let’s first take a look at their differences.
JPEG vs RAW what’s it all about and why is this such an issue for photographers? Well in this Jpeg vs Raw for beginners article I am going to answer all your questions and clearly explain exactly why there is such a massive difference between these two file formats.
I have a video below also where I show how to edit a raw file, I also edited the same Jpeg photograph so you can physically see how much of a difference there is between the two file formats.
But first let’s have a look at the technical difference between Jpeg vs Raw photographs.
- Smaller file sizes.
- They can be printed immediately from your camera.
- They have been edited in camera for you.
- They appear sharper and more colourful immediately.
- Saves space on your storage device and Memory cards.
- It deletes some details it thinks you won’t want.
- Often times it edits the photo incorrectly.
- Loss of dynamic range.
- Less details for large prints.
- Retains all the hidden details in your photographs.
- Gives you more control over the final results.
- Gives you greater dynamic range to recover shadow detail.
- Better for large prints.
- Photographs have to be edited.
- Larger file sizes.
- More storage space needed for them.
- Images appear to be less sharp and dull.
Jpeg vs RAW for beginners
Jpeg is basically a form of compression, so Jpeg file sizes are smaller as the compression ssytem gets rid of data it deems to be useless, so it saves space on your memory card (“useless data” is the key point here).
You may well be thinking that’s awesome and a huge advantage to Jpeg files and this whole Jpeg vs Raw debate is over before it started but getting rid of data is not always a good thing. I will explain why in more detail in a few minutes.
Secondly… with a jpeg photograph it’s also edited for you by your camera. Again this sounds like another positive to most people and yes again it is in ways.
So, to recap your camera captures the raw light in the photograph, edits it and compresses it for you all in a split second. Which in ways in mind blowing but the issue is a camera sees light differently to a human eye so it doesn’t always do a very good job of it.
I am going to show you this in more detail further down the page but for now let’s take a quick look at Raw files and what they do.
When your camera is set to Raw mode this is what happens to your photographs…
As soon as you press the shutter button your cameras sensor absorbs the light (the actual photograph) and converts it into a raw file and then transfers all that light to your memory card. It basically does nothing to your your photograph.
The key here is you get all that sumptuous detail in your file even in the parts your camera thinks you don’t need any detail.
The issue is though that because everything is retained and the file isn’t compressed (really) the raw file sizes are a lot larger so it will eat up a lot more space on your memory cards.
The second issue is that you will have to edit your photographs… there is no way around that, Raw files look horrific as they are not sharp, they lack contrast and saturation as well as a few other minor issues.
So why would you then take Raw Photographs?
When you think Raw photographs have larger file sizes and they also have to be edited, it seems like that is a lot of hassle when the Jpeg option is so much easier. So the whole Jpeg vs Raw debate is over right? Well, it’s not that simple and here is why…
The real point of shooting in Raw vs Jpeg for photographers is to keep all that sumptuous detail. Yes, it’s all really down to the detail… In a jpeg file most of that glorious shadow detail (darker parts of your image) is deemed unnecessary and just deleted by your camera.
In a raw file on the other hand all that detail is still there and you can edit the Raw photograph to bring out all those beautiful shadow details. This process while it might be more time consuming gives you a result that’s a lot closer to the way it was when you originally stood there and captured the scene.
At the end of the day we have to remember that’s what photography is all about… Capturing what you saw when you stood there and not your cameras interpretation of what it looked like.
Jpeg vs Raw file size.
On my 46mp camera a raw file is roughly around 50mb+ whereas a jpeg (fine) file in the same camera is about 20mb+ So the Jpeg file is is at least half the file size of the Raw photograph. Now if you step back to Jpeg Normal the file size is around 10mb only.
Why does your camera see it so differently?
It all comes down to how incredibly special the human eye is and how we can look at a scene and see such a huge variation in light, that by the way is called Dynamic range.
Your camera can only see about a third of that variation in light through a jpeg image. In a raw file after it is processed you can bring it back to roughly about two thirds of the dynamic range of the human eye. Those exact statistics are hotly debated in the medical world, I am no scientist so I will take there word for it.
While this is still not perfect it is an lot better than being able to see one third one third of the range of light in a photograph.
This is the principle reason why we most serious photographers take their photographs in RAW. Which brings us to….
How do you edit a raw file?
You can use programs like Luminar Neo, ON1 Photo Raw 2023, Dx0 PhotoLab 6, Lightroom and photoshop (click on the program name to read my reviews of it and get a discount code also) to edit your Raw photographs, the beauty of it all is you can also get a free trial with them so you have nothing to lose, just download the software (no credit card details needed).
So lets have a look at a raw file…
The below photograph was shot in RAW and the exposure was set to expose the sun reasonably correctly. As you can see the main bulk of the photograph is under exposed so it’s very dark apart from the sun. This photograph has a huge dynamic range and even when standing there looking at the scene it was difficult taking it all in with the human eye without squinting.
The day I took these photographs I was shooting raw and jpeg simultaneously so the below shot is the Jpeg photograph captured in camera. The jpeg file appears to do a much better job initially but wait till you see what you can do with the raw file.
In the jpeg file you can see more of the foreground straightaway and the sheep are clearly visible also. This is all down to the fact that your camera has edited the Raw file it captured for you and as well as brightening is it added sharpness, contrast, saturation and boosted the shadow detail also as it converted it to a Jpeg file.
The Jpeg photograph still isn’t right though as you can see the grass is still very dark and lacking texture. Before we do anymore with the Jpeg version let’s try editing the Raw photograph and see if we can recover a bit more detail in it?
Below is the edited raw file and wow look at that for a transformation. It’s hard to believe they are the same photograph.
In my video further up the page you can see me doing this step by step and showing you the simple editing process involved.
I have the Raw photograph and the edited Raw photograph side by side below just so you can see the transformation in the photograph and the sheer power of capturing a photograph in Raw. Now a slight point to note here is that the camera I used for this particular shat was a Nikon D850 which has an incredible Dynamic range so not every camera out there can do this.
The edited Raw photograph result is almost exactly what it looked like when I was standing there. That’s the power of capturing photographs in the Raw format. Yes, they are larger file sizes and they involve more work as you have to edit them but just look at the results you can get from them.
So how did I edit the Raw photograph to get it to look like that?
In this instance I used Lightroom to edit the photograph, I simple brought the highlights down (I made the brighter parts of the scene slightly darker) and I brought the shadows up (I brightened the darker parts of the scene) then I brought up the overall exposure (brightness) a bit to brighten the overall picture and your done. Again it’s all shown in the video below.
Editing the Jpeg Photograph.
So let’s try editing the jpeg file now in exactly the same way and see how that goes. It was a lot brighter to start with so you would think it would be very easy to get similar results…
The below photograph is the best result I could get from the Jpeg file and again you can see this in the video further up the page.
There were two immediate issues with the Jpeg file, firstly, when I tried the same steps as I used with the Raw file the grass as you can see started to change colour and the second issue was the darker parts of the image simply had no detail no matter what I did with them.
The dark parts they will never come back because those details were stripped out of the photograph when it was converted to a Jpeg image. All I did in editing the jpeg file was drop the highlights and bring up the shadow details and the overall exposure which was exactly the same way I edited the raw file.
If you are enjoying this blog post then when you’re finished please feel free to check out the rest of my Photography tips and tricks in the menu above 🙂
So why did the colours change?
Remember I mentioned before that a jpeg file is a compressed file and that your camera strips out any information it deems to be useless… well the texture in the dark patches of the grass and the variation of tones and colour in the grass were deemed to be useless and have been deleted. When I increased the shadow brightness and exposure that’s what I got then.
All these “Useless” bits of information were deleted because your camera decided they weren’t needed. This is exactly why most professional photographers only ever shoot in Raw. It gives you a lot more room to play around with in editing the photograph afterwards.
That photograph in Jpeg would be impossible to capture in a single image without using a graduated filter.
But as you can see it’s entirely possible to capture it in Raw in a single shot.
A certain amount of this depends on your camera and its dynamic range, I was using the Nikon D850 for this photograph and as you can see it has an amazing dynamic range.
Again I highly recommend you have a look at the video further up the page as I talk you through each step of the editing process.
Raw or Jpeg?
Have a look at my photography tips and tricks section in the menu where I cover everything from…
Photography editing Software tips,
ND Filters explained and how to choose the right ones,
Photography tips everything from filters to tripods,
How to backup your photographs,
Lastly, can I just say if you are shooting away from the sun and lets say it is an overcast day, the fact that there is not as much dynamic range in your image means that you can easily capture every bit of detail you will need in a jpeg file. So you don’t always need this extended dynamic range.
I would normally use a Formatt Hitech graduated filter (discount code here)
If you are printing extremely large file sizes there is also an added advantage of shooting in raw, that’s a whole other debate or blog post though.
See you out there,
Jpeg vs Raw blog post by Kieran Hayes for Landscape Photography Ireland.